Researchers have proposed a theory.

Scientists from the Baltic Federal centre of Immanuel Kant in Kaliningrad (Russia) came to the conclusion that the universe has boundaries and has no dark energy.

According to “” reported in a press release on EurekAlert!.

Researchers have proposed the theory that dark energy is an analogy of Casimir effect acting on the “wall” of the Universe. The Casimir effect is a mutual attraction of two uncharged bodies (e.g., plates), placed at a close distance. This occurs under the influence of quantum fluctuations in the vacuum, spontaneously born when virtual particles, e.g., photons. The pressure exerted by virtual photons inside the two surfaces, is smaller than the outside.

According to physicists, the same thing happens in space, but it leads to a repulsion which accelerates the expansion of the Universe. Thus, there is no dark energy and the expansion occurs due to the presence of borders, which is the pressure of virtual particles.

The theory of scientists are based on models of the Randall-Sundrum in which antidestructive is considered a five-dimensional space (ADS), which has a negative curvature. ADS is the opposite of de sitter space that describes the properties of the normal Universe with a positive curvature.