What cars explored the “Red planet.”

March 20, NASA announced the full availability of the Rover Perseverance to fly. It was equipped with special samplers for soil. In them, the Rover can bring to Earth samples of the surface and, who knows, even life. The launch of Perseverance (“Perseverance”) will be held in July 2020, when the orbit of Earth and Mars will be most successful for flight ratio. And even the coronavirus not yet have to prevent it. “Focus” tells of the other Rovers investigating the Red planet.

1 “the sojourner”

Time — 85 earth days

“Sojourner” was the first Rover that conquered Mars. The device landed on the Red planet July 4, 1997. His name he received in honor of women fighter against slavery sojourner Trut (came up with the name 12-year-old boy — winner of the essay contest). The Rover was designed for a 7-day mission, but in the end it worked for 85 days. During this time I managed to travel about 100 m.

2 “Spirit”

Work — 2269 earth days

In January 2004 NASA in the framework of the Mars Exploration Rover arrived on Mars two lunar Rover. The first of these, Spirit, landed on 4 January. It was initially planned that for the 92 days he will pass 600 m. However, in the end, the Rover overcame 7.3 km, until the end of 2009, not stuck in a sand dune. Communication with the “Spirit” is completely lost on 2269-th day from the beginning of the mission.

3 “opportunity”

Work — 5252 earth days

Twin Spirit landed on Mars on 25 January 2004 and more than twice beat him to it. Communication with the Rover broke a 5252-e day from the beginning of the mission when he was caught in a sand storm. During this time, opportunity has traveled 45 km away. NASA has tried several times to communicate with the Rover, but after nine months of unsuccessful attempts 13 Feb 2019 officially completed the mission.

4 “Curiosity”

Work — 2774 earth day (March 12)

The Rover third generation with the chemical laboratory aboard 6 Aug 2012 made a soft landing on the planet. Planned life — 686 days, but he continues to work to this day. The Rover has survived a dust storm and breakage of the drill, was able to determine the age of rocks containing organic substances, found mud cracks, remaining after drying the “streams” and made a lot of selfies.

5 “Rosalind Franklin”

The launch is scheduled for July 2020

While all the planetary Rovers that have visited Mars belongs to NASA. But in February 2021 they can compete with the Rover “Rosalind Franklin” which is ready to be sent to Mars in a joint mission ExoMars, the European space Agency and Roscosmos. The launch of the spacecraft with the Rover scheduled for July of this year and landing on Mars in February next.