Researchers were told what the outcome of the experiment with the NASA twin space and earth.

“The phenomenon of Scott’s” – the so-called supernatural changes in the body Scott Kelly (Scott Kelly) — NASA astronaut, who spent 344 days at the International space station (ISS). He lengthened telomeres — the end segments of chromosomes, which the researchers were surprised 2 years ago. Because telomeres over the years only become shorter with each cell division. Taken even assume that a steady decline in these genetic structures accompanies aging, and leads eventually to death, which occurs when the length of the “ends” becomes critically low, writes

The astronaut has these same tips of the grown — become longer by about 14 percent. As if he were 10 years younger.

Scott Kelly is one of two experimental “rabbits” a large-scale project of the American space Agency for the study of twins (NASA Twins Study). It involves 10 research groups – more than 200 scientists from 30 countries. Before sending it into orbit astronaut donated blood for tests. Continued to lose and in space probes were sent to earth with the colleagues who left the ISS.

The second “rabbit” – mark Kelly – twin brother, Scott, is genetically identical to it. Also an astronaut, but the now flying.

While on Earth, mark was a sort of control sample. Comparing the tests of the brothers, it was possible to understand what changes are due to stay in space. Actually this is the whole point of the NASA project Twins.

On the Ground with Scott was a second miracle — about 48 hours since the landing, its telomeres have shortened to the same size. And then became even shorter than before space flight. As if the astronaut suddenly again old — already more than 10 years. Gradually disappeared and some other effects, discovered on the ISS. In space, Scott has grown about 5 inches. But the Earth is “squeezed” to the old growth. On-orbit astronaut lost collagen protein of connective tissue. After landing, the process is stopped.

However, not all acquired in the space disappeared. As it happens: gene Scott Kelly began another 7 percent. It turns out that mark now and not twin him at all. After all, the genetic difference of 7 percent is quite impressive. It is much more than those 2 percent, thanks to whom we differ, for example, from a chimpanzee.

According to scientists, Scott changed the expression of genes: some shut down, others joined, some have become more active, some less.

While Scott was in space, a different activity was nearly 10 thousand of its genes compared to the mark. After returning from orbit to work otherwise continued about 800 genes. Found and mutation — until the DNA breaks.

A little and the other was the body of an astronaut. Tougher and thicker became the walls of vessels. Thicker and optic nerve. Slightly flatten the eyeball.

In the intestine has bred bacteria that were previously in the minority. changed the composition of the bones.

Compared to the mark Scott became stupid, so to speak. Worse cope with tests and other intellectual tasks in which the flight are in no way inferior brother.

Conclusion: the space changes people. Though not very much. But the changes in just a year, the visible. Perhaps they are due to the fact that the body begins to adapt to life in space. As this suggests, it is not incorporated whether this ability genetically?

Project NASA Twins Study unique. In fact, the space Agency called unprecedented. But, alas, he never gave an answer to the main question: how long a person can stay in space without much harm to your health? Go to Mars without this, it would be very frivolous. Not to mention the far expeditions to other stars. Because genetic changes may bring up the fact that flight will leave people, and to target get ugly. Or on the contrary, perfect?

Why do people habitually in zero gravity?

Oleg Georgievich, Gazenko – luminary space medicine, founder of the Institute of biomedical problems of the RAS – surprised: the human body, once weightless, almost immediately begins to rebuild, adapting to the new conditions. But like he knows what to do.

There are astronauts who do not experience the weightlessness of discomfort. More all has surprised doctors Valery Bykovsky. He was involved in the work on the orbit from the first minute. But even astronauts, a week after the arrival to the station stirs, eventually adapt and calmly do things.

– If humanity until 1961 never happened in space, where our body knows how to quickly adapt to seemingly unknown to him? – says Oleg Georgievich. – The body changes fundamentally changes the system of blood supply, oxygen consumption, stretches the spine, from the bones leaches calcium. The heels on the feet which callous skin (how many astronauts adults, found something on the ground!), be pink and tender, like a baby. Thus the person remains healthy. It feels good, it works fine!