Landscape design , landscape architecture  is an art located at the junction of three areas: on the one hand, architecture , construction and design (engineering aspect), on the other hand, botany and crop production (biological aspect) and, on the third hand, landscape design uses information from history (especially from the history of culture ) and philosophy [1] . In addition, landscape design is called practical actions for gardening and landscaping.

Unlike gardening and horticulture , whose main task has an agricultural focus (increasing the yield of horticultural crops), landscape design is a more general and universal discipline. The main task of landscape design is to create harmony, beauty, combined with the convenience of using the infrastructure of buildings, smoothing the conflict between urban forms and nature , which often suffers from them. Professional landscape design software can be a special case of a more general concept – landscape design.

History

Since ancient times, gardens have been the traditional form of organizing the surrounding space with the help of green spaces. They became especially popular in the courts of the rulers and grandees of Eastern countries. Further, gardening as an art has spread almost everywhere. At the same time, the utility of horticulture (consumption of fruit and selection of fruit trees) played an important role for a long time ; later, decorativeness of flowers received more attention. But neither fruit trees nor flowers are so widespread in modern landscape design, especially in its modern urban form. Landscape design – the concept of the XX century itself. The term originated in WesternEurope, primarily in densely populated and industrially developed countries: Great Britain, Germany, where mass industrialization and the growth of suburbs quickly led to pressure on the environment.

Key points

  • Simplicity
  • Convenience and practicality
  • Aesthetic value ( beauty )

Design and layout of the site 

The first stage in preparing the terrain for carrying out landscape works begins with artistic design, that is, the creation of a rough outline, the basic rules of which are:

  • Planting and placement of plants should have a group character, that is, plants of one species or closely related species should be planted in close proximity to each other, otherwise the terrain takes on a short, desert appearance.
  • When planting plants and carrying out other artistic design events, straight lines should be avoided. Plants in particular are not recommended to plant in a straight line, as this does not contribute to the development of their bushiness. Extremely strict symmetry is also undesirable because of its unnatural appearance, although a certain balance and a balanced composition of design elements must certainly be present.

Components of landscape design

Elements of landscape design are diverse. Their main groups:

  • The buildings themselves that form the center of the landscape project, the main purpose of which is to smooth out the unnaturalness of geometrically correct structures , to soften their pressure on the surrounding nature, to remove construction debris , to mask defects and flaws. Buildings can be single or multi-storey, single or complex, private or commercial, typical or stylized, designed for a wide variety of purposes.
  • Lawn coating, formed by all sorts of herbs .
  • Green plantings in the form of individual trees, shrubs (in this case are called tapeworms ), as well as their combinations and whole ensembles ( garden , flowerbed , rabatka , etc.)
  • Various large decorative elements ( lake , pond , stream , fountain , stones , sculpture ).
  • Smaller artistic details ( music pendant , lamp, candles, etc.)

Green areas

Green plantings are a collection of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in a certain area.

Basis and main background all plantations of landscape design – lawn or lawn cover. Differ:

  • English lawn  – composed of sedge and related grass grasses; It has a correct, trimmed, but somewhat unnatural appearance, quickly “bothers” the eye, more suitable for the industrial-business and professional-sports sectors.
  • Moorish lawn  – in addition to grasses, it also includes wildflowers, has an asymmetrical and rather bright, elegant look, mows down only a couple of times a year, more suitable for private sector developments with individual planning for recreational and entertainment purposes.

Trees

Tree (lat. Árbor) is a life form of woody plants with a single, distinctly expressed, perennial, lignified to varying degrees, remaining throughout life, branched (except for palm trees), the main axis – the trunk.

Shrubs

Shrubs are plants of average height, usually not more than a meter. They have hard and flexible stems that begin to branch near the ground. Shrubs usually grow in dry and hot areas, and therefore many of them have small and hard leaves, from which moisture does not evaporate so quickly, and roots that go deep into the ground are able to extract water from the lowest layers of the soil, where it remains drought.

 


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