Food habits of majority of people has not changed since the 60-ies. We used to — or so we said — eat buckwheat and bread, try to eat less fatty and fried, to blame themselves for extra piece of cake and absorb as much as possible fruits and vegetables. Why? Nobody knows. That is the “American diet” which is rapidly creeps upon the whole world, yielding fruit, and diet are powerless. Why? Do we eat? What recent studies? In this series of articles we will examine the diet of centenarians and see what scientists say about the food.

Let’s start with this interesting, but many do not understand element as fiber.

What is bacteria?

Fiber is a set of substances (cellulose, pectin, lignin and others) contained in plant foods, says Nikolai Karpov, member of the Department of anatomy and physiology, Tyumen state University. The main feature of fiber is its neperenosimosti in the gastrointestinal tract. Food includes refined products (flour, juices, jams), in which the cellulose contains little. So many people are facing its shortage. First and foremost, it affects the digestive tract . What is the use? In the stomach fiber absorbs the gastric juice, increases the volume before saturation, which helps a person to overeat. In the small intestine fiber slows the absorption of simple sugars, so foods with fiber have a low glycemic index. Fiber does not feed our body, but eat it bifidobacteria in our intestines, and thus strengthens our immune system. To get the daily requirement of fiber, you need to eat about a kilogram of fruits and vegetables daily, and eat bread made from wheat flour or bran. Or resort to the help of special additives.

Dietary fibers (cellulose) are defined as the sum of polysaccharides and lignin not digested by endogenous secrets of the gastrointestinal tract of man, adds therapist a mobile clinic DOC+, Hope Gorsky. For example, in herbivores for digesting cellulose is a special enzyme (cellulase), but the human body is absent, therefore, dietary fiber is not digested. They are under the influence of the liquid swells, thus creates a feeling of satiation, this is especially important for the weight loss, regulate sugar and cholesterol levels in the blood. Dietary fiber help cleanse the gastrointestinal tract from the remnants of undigested food, which significantly accelerates the absorption of nutrients into blood and lymph.

Traditional sources of fiber: dietary fiber cereals, legumes, vegetables, roots, fruit, berries, citrus fruits, nuts, fungi and algae.

These words and practices supports weight loss, Elena Cullen — psychologist, expert in psychology of weight loss author training weight loss.

“In the body there is no enzyme that can break down cellulose, so getting into the stomach, and later in the intestine, the tissue swells and irritates the walls, causing their contraction (peristalsis). Because of this the food moves through the intestines, improves digestion and absorption. This means that the tissue in the body receives more nutrients and vitamins. In addition, by increasing bowel movement better cleaned which provides a more rapid penetration of nutrients from the intestine into the blood.

The importance of fiber in the diet lies in the fact that dietary fiber is a source of food for bacteria living in the colon. The balance of these bacteria gives the body a stable chair.

In order to ensure a steady supply of fiber in the body, the diet must include raw fruits and vegetables, legumes, grains and cereals. Cooked vegetables and fruits contain less dietary fiber, because they have already been processed. If these products is not enough, you will have constant problems with digestion”.

Harm fiber

We have mentioned that the fiber swells in the intestine, and this requires water. Only in this case it is possible to obtain the desired effect. If you increase the consumption of fiber, but with almost no drinking water, can cause an even greater deterioration of the bowel.

The leaders in content of fiber in its composition — bran. If the bowel is disrupted and no diet products that contain fiber, it is recommended to add bran to food. Enough one table spoon in porridge in the morning, after the overabundance of fiber can harm the body.

Intake fiber food is one of the important ways of normalization of the bowel. The digestive system provides the body with building material, energy and vitamins. If there are violations in its work, lack of absorption and digestion of food, it will affect the entire body and life expectancy.

How much fiber should be consumed?

Physician and nutritionist services Online Dr. Victoria Grishkova argues that it is not necessary to clean fruits and vegetables from the skin. For an adult, a normal fiber is 25 grams. A day required to eat at least 400 grams of fruit and vegetables.

Fiber has a positive effect on the body and the human digestive system. So, when we eat foods containing large amounts of fiber in the oral cavity, a large amount of saliva. Saliva is rich in enzymes and trace elements, it protects teeth from decay, neutralizes acid and has a bactericidal action.

Then in contact with tissue in the stomach, it begins to actively absorb water and increase in volume, which gives the feeling of fullness. This is especially useful for people who struggle with excess weight.

Once in the intestine, fiber also improves the passage of food bolus, thereby improving the chair. Another important property of fiber — cleansing the body of cholesterol, dietary fiber adsorbs on itself the cholesterol, not letting it penetrate into our blood.

Dietary fiber (cellulose) is useful for people suffering from intestinal dysbiosis, and increased flatulence. Fiber helps maintain intestinal flora. By inhibiting the activity of pathogenic bacteria, it reduces putrefaction processes in the body and improves the excretion of waste products. And as you know, a healthy gut is the key to a strong immune system.

Chemical engineer and businessman in the field of healthy lifestyle Elizabeth Mursic recommends to focus on bran:

“Bran is composed of most valuable, that is in grain — grain shells, seed embryo and aleurone layer. In these parts of the grain contains all the biologically active and useful substances data the grain of nature — more than 90% of the benefit we could get from them, if in the production of flour they didn’t like. The main value of bran is a high content of dietary fiber (cellulose). And when the diet picked up of fiber leads to dysbiosis and is one of the causes of intestinal diseases.

Bran help to regulate bowel function, improve the microflora. The norm of dietary fiber per day is 25-30 grams . I think you know that meat, fish, and other animal products has no fiber in the vegetable, but there are a few and eat fresh vegetables and fruits weight, especially in winter, really difficult. Bran contains up to 40%. fiber. 40 g of bran per day equal to 680 g of boiled carrots, 770 g of boiled cabbage or 1,5 kg of raw apples. The caloric value of bran varies from 160 calories (or more) per 100 g, where the proportion of vegetable proteins and carbohydrates, whereas fat content in them is extremely high — around 4 g per 100 g of product.

Pharmacies are many different producers of bran. When bran get into our body, they begin to work like a vacuum cleaner: gather and remove toxins, cholesterol, radionuclides, salts of heavy metals and hazardous substances.”

Tissue: is it necessary really?

Despite the consensus among nutritionists and dietitians, there are some studies that deny the benefits of fiber, or reduce it to the special conditions, like high consumption of refined and “wrong” food (known flaw of modernity).

In 1971, Dr. Denis Burkitt, Irish surgeon, published an article based on his observations of life in Uganda, where he lived at the time. In it, he suggested that the lack of dietary fiber was the cause of many problems that have troubled Western societies at the time. He decided that it causes colon cancer, type II diabetes, likely heart disease, varicose veins, obesity, diverticular disease, appendicitis, gall stones, cavities in teeth, hemorrhoids, hernia and constipation.

Dr. Burkitt noticed that indigenous Africans produce four times more feces than the English children at school, and doing it three times faster. He suspected that this is due to all the fiber that is eaten in Africa. And suggested that the high speed of the excrement leaves no time for the development of cancer resulting from the contact of food with our gut.

Since then launched a wave of recommendations to eat more fiber.

But in 2002, the respected Cochrane Collaboration reviewed five high quality studies that were conducted under controlled conditions involving 5,000 patients. And came to the conclusion that there is no evidence that increasing the amount of fiber in the diet reduces the risk of developing bowel cancer.

In 2005, for this review followed a study by Harvard school of public health. Her work has covered 13 studies involving 725 628. And again dietary fiber has nothing to do with it. The authors concluded that a high intake of fiber did not reduce the risk of colon cancer.

The theory is that fiber reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, because it reduces “bad” cholesterol. However, studies have shown that although oats reduces cholesterol, testing of other types of fiber have not shown that they are good or bad for the process. Also there is no evidence that fiber reduces the risk of death from heart disease.

As for constipation and hemorrhoids, studies have repeatedly faced with the fact that they could not prove that patients with constipation are eating less fiber than without it. Because fiber is essentially indigestible fiber, excessive consumption of fiber, by contrast, can lead to constipation. Moreover, with the exception of the abundance of fiber in the diet of people suffering from constipation, have led to the improvement of their conditions.

Where is the truth? To solve it you have to yourself.

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Warning: the article presents the opinions are purely Advisory in nature.